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30. 11. 2006 Morphology - Word construction
30. 11. 2006 Morphology – Word construction
Revision: Basic concepts in morphology
Grammatical morphemes ( affixes or free morphemes, fixed number)
nouns combined with nouns/ adjectives, ...
fire engine -> what kind of engine
red skin -> Indian, NOT what kind of skin BUT who has that kind of skin
English words consist of
relates a word to its syntactic context
subject verb agreement ( person, case, number)
relates a word to its semantic context
tense, time, quantity, speaker addressee
Inflections of English words
a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning.
Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness."
Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on. (as in the dog morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme s becomes dogs).
the combination of the basic form of a word (called the root) plus any derivational morphemes, but excluding inflectional elements
stem + affix
stem + another stem
● What is the difference between inflection and derivation?
Inflection : the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person.
derivation: the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. It is a kind of word formation.
● What is the difference between derivation and
● Collect 5 longish words and
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