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02. 11. 2006 From IE to ME


02. 11. 2006 From Indo- European to Middle Old English

The indo- european language family

  • some language are similar because they developed from the same language

  • similarities in form and meaning in

  • almost all european language (except basque and finno- ugrig language)

  • languages of South Central Asia

The origin of indo- european

  • Baltic theory

  • the oldest, based on shared botanical vocabulary such as “beech, Buche, ... fagus”, and the putative geographical location of these plants explains a possible origin, but not reasons for dispersion.

  • South East European Theory

  • similar to the Baltic theory; no resons for dispersion.

  • The Flood Theory

  • gives reasons for dispersion - a natural catastrophe.

  • The Caucasus Theory

  • The origins of agriculture are said to have spread East-West from the Fertile Crescent (Iraq) between about 7,000 - 3000 BC, which coincides with what has been postulated about the East-West spread of the Indo-European languages.




    Indo European Expansion

  • 5000 to 3000 BC (spread of agriculture)

  • Hellenic Expansion 330 BC (Alexander the Great, greek influence)

  • Roman expansion 100 BC – 400 AD (Latin influence)

  • romance languages

  • roman catholic church

  • Colonal expansion adter 1492

  • romance languages ( Portuguese, Spanish, French)

  • germanic languages ( Dutch, English)




    Indo-European languages now dominate the language

    maps of the world:

    • Why are Portuguese and Spanish the official national languages of South American states?

    • Why are varieties of Dutch among the official national languages of Indonesia and South Africa?

      Maybe because of the atlantic triangle. Ships from europe travelled to the african coast to exchange cheap goods for black slaves. They shipped to the Carribean islands and American coast, exchanged for rum, sugar, ...


    • Why is English the official national language of the USA, Australia, New Zealand?


      James Cook visited Australia in 1770, within 20 years first penal colony in Sidney, prisoners -> Sidney, from 19th century immigration increased, British isles main sourse of settlers -> main influence on language

      New Zealand

      James Cook 1769, whalers and traders from Europe 1790, christian missionary 1814, -> increase in European immigration

    • In which African countries are the following Indo-European languages among the official national languages?

    • English

    • French

    • Portuguese


    • gambia

    • sierra leone

    • liberia

    • ghana

    • nigeria

    • uganda

    • sambia

    • simbabwe

    • botswana

    • namibia


    • senegal

    • mali

    • guinea

    • côte d'ivoire

    • togo

    • benin

    • burkina faso

    • niger

    • gabun

    • kongo

    • d. r. Kongo


    • angola

    • mosambique

    Settlements of Britain: Who was in Britain before the English?

    • Earliest known: Celts

    • Goidelic Celtic (e.g. Gaelic, spoken today in the West of Ireland and North-West Scotland)

    • Brythonic Celtic (e.g. Welsh, now spoken in Wales, and Breton, re-introduced to European mainland from Wales and Cornwall)

    • West and Northgermanic migration

    • West Germanic: Angles, Saxons: after about 400 AD

    • North Germanic: Vikings after about 600 AD

    • Norman French (French-speaking descendants Viking): 1066

    The Celts

    • Where did the Celts originate?

    • The Baltic theory: the oldest, based on shared botanical vocabulary such as “beech, Buche, ... fagus”, and the putative geographical location of these plants explains a possible origin, but not reasons for dispersion.

    • The South-East European Theory: similar to the Baltic theory; no resons for dispersion.

    • The Flood Theory gives reasons for dispersion - a natural catastrophe.

    • The Caucasus Theory: The origins of agriculture are said to have spread East-West from the Fertile Crescent (Iraq) between about 7,000 - 3000 BC, which coincides with what has been postulated about the East-West spread of the Indo-European languages.


    • Name 3 Celtic town names in the area of modern Germany and give their meanings

    • Halle

    • Badsalzuflen

    • Salzburg ( Austria)

    • salt

    • Where do the Celts live now?

    • Ireland (north west)

    • Scotland

    • Wales

    • What is their significance for English studies?

    • Historically

    • currently

7.11.06 21:19

09. 11. 2006 Development of English – Germanic roots and influences, the spread of English


09. 11. 2006 Development of English – Germanic roots and influences, the spread of English

  • Roman occupation ( Hadrian's Wall)

  • Celts: vocabulary ( luh "lake" loch, lough)

  • origin of place name „London“: a celtic tribal name ( The Cambridge Encyclopedia od the English Language, David Crystal, page 8)

  • East Germanic

  • The gothic Bible: The bible of bishop Wulfila ( first translation of the Bible) ( 500 AD)

  • project Wulfila: digital library dedicated to the study of the Gothic language and Germanic languages in general

  • language died out about 1000 years ago

  • East- Germanic speaking people migrated to the south (France, ...)

  • North Germanic

  • The horns of Gallehus

  • The Golden horns of Gallehus were two golden horns, one shorter than the other, discovered in North Slesvig, or Schleswig, in Denmark. The horns were believed to date to the fifth century (Germanic Iron Age).


  • runes transcriptions

  • greek alphabet

  • used in north Europe

  • Saxons, Norsemen, Vikings

  • the external history of a language : the social, political, military, ... environment

  • Celtics were pushed back to Scotland, Wales and Cornwall by the Saxons

  • 600 AD the Norsemen settles islands like Scotland, Iceland, some parts of Northamerica, the west coast of Britain

  • Irish city names like Belfast or Galway

  • Vikings came from Sweden and Denmark

  • in France: Normans, big influence in 1066 (legal- and upper class language)

Old English

  • About 600 - 1000 AD

  • Task: Find out who or what “Beowulf” is

  • Find the text and a translation

  • Figure out the vocabulary and the grammar of two or three lines, by comparing the text with the translation

  • Beowulf (c. 700-1000 A.D.) is a heroic epic poem. At 3,182 lines, it is notable for its length in comparison to other Old English poems. It represents about 10% of the extant corpus of Old English poetry. The poem is untitled in the manuscript, but has been known as Beowulf since the early 19th century. In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of a Germanic tribe from southern Sweden called the Geats, travels to Denmark to help defeat a monster named Grendel. He later returns to Geatland, where he becomes king, and when he is old he kills a dragon and dies. Although dealing primarily with Scandinavian matters, the work has risen to such prominence that it is sometimes called "England's national epic".



    Hwæt! Wé Gárdena      in géardagum


    Listen! We --of the Spear-Danes      in the days of


    þéodcyninga      þrym gefrúnon·


    of those clan-kings--      heard of their glory.

    hú ðá æþelingas      ellen fremedon.


    how those nobles      performed courageous deeds.

    Oft Scyld Scéfing      sceaþena þréatum


    Often Scyld, Scef's son,      from enemy hosts

    monegum maégþum      meodosetla oftéah·


    from many peoples      seized mead-benches;

    egsode Eorle      syððan aérest wearð


    and terrorised the fearsome Heruli      after first he was

    féasceaft funden      hé þæs frófre gebád·


    found helpless and destitute,      he then knew


    for that:-

    wéox under wolcnum·      weorðmyndum þáh


    he waxed under the clouds,      throve in honours,

    oð þæt him aéghwylc      þára ymbsittendra


    until to him each      of the bordering tribes

    ofer hronráde      hýran scolde,



Him se yldesta      andswarode·


He the eldest      answered,

werodes wísa      wordhord onléac:


the crew's captain,      he unlocked his word-hoard:

'Wé synt gumcynnes      Géata léode


'We are of the tribe      of the Geat people

ond Higeláces      heorðgenéatas·


and Hygelac's      hearth-companions;

wæs mín fæder      folcum gecýþed


my father was      known to the folk,

æþele ordfruma      Ecgþéow háten·


a noble vanguard-warrior,      called Edgetheow,

gebád wintra worn      aér hé on weg hwurfe


who saw many winters      ere he passed away,

Him: he , se: the, yldesta: eldest, andswarode: answered, onléac: unlock, wé: we, synt: are (German sind) , gumcynnes: tribe, Géata: great ( German großer), léode: people (German: Leute), ond: and (German und), Hygeláces: Hygelac's, heordgenéatas: hearth companions, waes (was, war), mín (my, mein), faeder (father, Vater), folcum (folk), gecýped (known)

was my father folk known : my father was known to the folk

1st part present participle – subject- object- 2nd part present participle

( text, translation :

Middle English

  • The Canterbury Tales

Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote

The droghte of March hath perced to the


And bathed every veyne in swich licour,

Of which vertu engendred is the flour;

Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete


Inspired hath in every holt and heeth

The tendre croppes, and the yonge


Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,

And smale foweles maken melodye,

That slepen al the nyght with open eye

(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages);

Thanne longen folk to goon on


When April with his showers sweet with fruit

The drought of March has pierced unto the


And bathed each vein with liquor that has


To generate therein and sire the flower;

When Zephyr also has, with his sweet


Quickened again, in every holt and heath,

The tender shoots and buds, and the young


Into the Ram one half his course has run,

And many little birds make melody

That sleep through all the night with open


(So Nature pricks them on to ramp and


Then do folk long to go on pilgrimage,


ME Glossary

  • soote: sweet

  • swich licour: such liquid

  • Zephirus: the west wind (Zephyrus)

  • eek: also

  • holt: wood

  • the Ram: Aries, the first sign of the Zodiac

  • yronne: run

  • priketh hem Nature: Nature pricks them

  • hir corages: their hearts

Old English Dialects

  • Northumbrian

  • Mercian ( Swedish, Danish)

  • Kentish

    Middle English Dialects

  • Northern

  • Westmidland

  • Eastmidland

  • Southern

  • Kentish

Modern English Dialects

  • Lower North

    - /lang/

  • Western Central

    - /long/

    - /bath/

  • Northern Southwest

    - /ba:th/

  • Eastern

    - /a:m/

  • Western

    - /arm/


Colonal language spread


1600 East India Company ( London merchants who were granted monopoly by Elisabeth 1.)

power of Mughal emperors decline -> company's influence grows

1858 power to the crown




Development of English

  • What are the most important stages?

  • Anglo Saxon

  • Old English

  • Middle English

  • Early Modern English

  • Modern English

  • What is the significance of Celtic / Latin?

  • Base of today's English, a lot of borrowings

Which major changes happened between

  • Old English and Middle English?

  • Rise of french (Norman influence 1066)

  • Middle English and Modern English?

  • Great Vowel Shift

English today

  • Where is English spoken today as a native language?

    Australia, Canada, Ireland, Great Britain, USA, India, New Zealand, ...

  • Why is English spoken all round the world?

Check Google for works by Jennifer Jenkins - what do

you find?



9.11.06 16:44

16. 11. 2006 Morphology- Words and their parts


16. 11. 2006 Morphology (1) – Words and their parts held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel

Components of Words

Word formation

  • simplex words

  • derived words

  • compound words

Definition of the word „word“

Collection of proposals in the lecture

  • combination of letters that make sense or have a special meaning

  • consists of letters

  • carries meaning

  • can be spoken

  • simple unit of language

  • written sound

  • used to form sentences

  • ...


  • We know what a word is (!)

  • words make up sentences ( sentences: syntax)

  • pronunciation with speech sound

  • speech sounds= phonemes= phonology

  • meaningful (sub)structure of words

  • structure of words= morphology


  • The study of the formation of words

  • MORPHEMES: The smallest unit of a unit that carries meaning. A word can be comprised of one or more morphemes

  • try: attempt to do something

  • try + „in the past“ : tried

  • try + „at the moment“ : trying

Identify the meaningful units of the following words:

Identify -> ident – ify

the -> the

meaningful -> mean- ing – ful

units -> unit-s

of -> of

the -> the

following -> follow- ing

words -> word-s

maybe -> may-be

some -> some

more -> more

complicated -> complicat- ed

example -> example

using -> use- ing

witchcraft -> witch- craft

to -> to

find -> find

terms -> term-s

Basic concepts in morphology

Simple word

  • consists of only one morpheme.

  • Example: boy, man, radio, book, paper, magnet, house, compute

Complex word

  • contains more than one morpheme (i.e. ≥2 morphemes).

  • Example: computer, boys, radio-recorder, bookshelf, magnetize, acidfree

Task: Find words

Find at least 20 simple words

  • boy

  • mother

  • table

  • father

  • desk

  • lamp

  • pupil

  • shoe

  • house

  • mouse

  • cat

  • dog

  • tiger

  • water

  • food

  • book

  • play

  • paper

  • shoe

  • pen

Find at least 20 complex words

  • rainbow

  • boys

  • shoes

  • teddy bear

  • pencil- case

  • bookshelves

  • ice cream

  • sunshine

  • raindrop

  • orange juice

  • birthday

  • table cloth

  • necklace

  • computer

  • wallpaper

  • cups

  • pre- prepared

  • teacher

  • description

  • establishment

  • similarities

Which of them are similar?

  • Sunshine – raindrop ( 2 nouns/ simplex words each)

  • boys – shoes ( simplex word + plural „s“ )

  • description – similarities ( simplex word + affix)


  • Can you describe the similarity?

  • Many complex words are built in the same way


Can you find a relation between some of

your simple words and complex words?

  • Boy – boys ( simple word – simple word plus plural s)



Free morpheme

  • can occur as a simple word.

  • Example: boy, man, radio,...

Bound morpheme

  • can only occur in connection with other morphemes. Example: -s, -ion, un-, -ize, ...


  • Variant forms of a morpheme

  • Example: a -- an, plural -s /s/ -- /Iz/ -- /z/

Task: free and bound morphemes

Make a list of 20 free morphemes

  • -> see list of simple words


Find bound morphemes

  • -s, -ion, -ize, -ment, -ism, -al, ...

Structure of words

several parts

root: carries the meaning

  • unbelievable: believe

affixes: other parts [bound morphemes]

prefix: affixes that attach before the root

suffix: affixes that attach after the root

  • example: In unbelievable “un” is a prefix and “able” a suffix.

base: form to which an affix is attached

Hierachy of concept


/   ............   \

root ..........    affix

....................../ .../ .....\.... \

...........................prefix .circumfix infix suffix

Task: complete the sentences!

Every word contains a ___base_______

A morpheme that is also a word is called a

____free morpheme_______________

A morpheme that needs a root to make up a word

is called a __bound morpheme______________

An affix in front of a base is called a _prefix_____,

behind a base it is called a _suffix_____

Both, simple words and complex words can be

the _base______ for a more complex word.

Every _root___ is a _base____, but not every _base___ is a


Processes of forming words



Other processes involved

  • inflection

Compounds – at least two roots

nouns combine with

  • nouns (fire engine),

  • adjectives (greenhouse),

  • verbs (swimming suit) and

  • prepositions (afterthought)

verbs combine with

  • adjectives (dry clean),

  • verbs (breakdance)

  • prepositions (underestimate)

adjectives combine with

  • prepositions (ingrown)

  • adjectives ( red hot)

Constituents of compounds


  • second part of compound

  • word class

modifier: specifies the compound


Find other compounds in English with a head that is a

  • noun ( rain drop)

  • verb (role – playing)

  • adjectives (cherry- red)

Find other compounds in English with a modifier that is a

  • noun (sunshine)

  • verb ( playground)

  • adjectives ( red skin)

  • prepositions ( over joy)

30.11.06 20:10


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