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02. 11. 2006 From IE to ME
02. 11. 2006 From Indo- European to Middle Old English
The indo- european language family
some language are similar because they developed from the same language
similarities in form and meaning in
almost all european language (except basque and finno- ugrig language)
languages of South Central Asia
The origin of indo- european
the oldest, based on shared botanical vocabulary such as “beech, Buche, ... fagus”, and the putative geographical location of these plants explains a possible origin, but not reasons for dispersion.
South East European Theory
similar to the Baltic theory; no resons for dispersion.
The Caucasus Theory
The origins of agriculture are said to have spread East-West from the Fertile Crescent (Iraq) between about 7,000 - 3000 BC, which coincides with what has been postulated about the East-West spread of the Indo-European languages.
Indo European Expansion
5000 to 3000 BC (spread of agriculture)
Hellenic Expansion 330 BC (Alexander the Great, greek influence)
Roman expansion 100 BC – 400 AD (Latin influence)
roman catholic church
Colonal expansion adter 1492
romance languages ( Portuguese, Spanish, French)
germanic languages ( Dutch, English)
Indo-European languages now dominate the language
maps of the world:
Why are Portuguese and Spanish the official national languages of South American states?
Why are varieties of Dutch among the official national languages of Indonesia and South Africa?
Maybe because of the atlantic triangle. Ships from europe travelled to the african coast to exchange cheap goods for black slaves. They shipped to the Carribean islands and American coast, exchanged for rum, sugar, ...
Why is English the official national language of the USA, Australia, New Zealand?
James Cook visited Australia in 1770, within 20 years first penal colony in Sidney, prisoners -> Sidney, from 19th century immigration increased, British isles main sourse of settlers -> main influence on language
James Cook 1769, whalers and traders from Europe 1790, christian missionary 1814, -> increase in European immigration
In which African countries are the following Indo-European languages among the official national languages?
d. r. Kongo
Settlements of Britain: Who was in Britain before the English?
Earliest known: Celts
Goidelic Celtic (e.g. Gaelic, spoken today in the West of Ireland and North-West Scotland)
Brythonic Celtic (e.g. Welsh, now spoken in Wales, and Breton, re-introduced to European mainland from Wales and Cornwall)
West and Northgermanic migration
West Germanic: Angles, Saxons: after about 400 AD
North Germanic: Vikings after about 600 AD
Norman French (French-speaking descendants Viking): 1066
Where did the Celts originate?
The Baltic theory: the oldest, based on shared botanical vocabulary such as “beech, Buche, ... fagus”, and the putative geographical location of these plants explains a possible origin, but not reasons for dispersion.
The South-East European Theory: similar to the Baltic theory; no resons for dispersion.
The Flood Theory gives reasons for dispersion - a natural catastrophe.
The Caucasus Theory: The origins of agriculture are said to have spread East-West from the Fertile Crescent (Iraq) between about 7,000 - 3000 BC, which coincides with what has been postulated about the East-West spread of the Indo-European languages.
Name 3 Celtic town names in the area of modern Germany and give their meanings
Salzburg ( Austria)
Where do the Celts live now?
Ireland (north west)
What is their significance for English studies?
09. 11. 2006 Development of English – Germanic roots and influences, the spread of English
09. 11. 2006 Development of English – Germanic roots and influences, the spread of English
Roman occupation ( Hadrian's Wall)
Celts: vocabulary ( luh "lake" loch, lough)
origin of place name „London“: a celtic tribal name ( The Cambridge Encyclopedia od the English Language, David Crystal, page 8)
The gothic Bible: The bible of bishop Wulfila ( first translation of the Bible) ( 500 AD)
project Wulfila: digital library dedicated to the study of the Gothic language and Germanic languages in general
language died out about 1000 years ago
East- Germanic speaking people migrated to the south (France, ...)
The horns of Gallehus
The Golden horns of Gallehus were two golden horns, one shorter than the other, discovered in North Slesvig, or Schleswig, in Denmark. The horns were believed to date to the fifth century (Germanic Iron Age).
used in north Europe
Saxons, Norsemen, Vikings
the external history of a language : the social, political, military, ... environment
Celtics were pushed back to Scotland, Wales and Cornwall by the Saxons
600 AD the Norsemen settles islands like Scotland, Iceland, some parts of Northamerica, the west coast of Britain
Irish city names like Belfast or Galway
Vikings came from Sweden and Denmark
in France: Normans, big influence in 1066 (legal- and upper class language)
About 600 - 1000 AD
Task: Find out who or what “Beowulf” is
Find the text and a translation
Figure out the vocabulary and the grammar of two or three lines, by comparing the text with the translation
Beowulf (c. 700-1000 A.D.) is a heroic epic poem. At 3,182 lines, it is notable for its length in comparison to other Old English poems. It represents about 10% of the extant corpus of Old English poetry. The poem is untitled in the manuscript, but has been known as Beowulf since the early 19th century. In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of a Germanic tribe from southern Sweden called the Geats, travels to Denmark to help defeat a monster named Grendel. He later returns to Geatland, where he becomes king, and when he is old he kills a dragon and dies. Although dealing primarily with Scandinavian matters, the work has risen to such prominence that it is sometimes called "England's national epic".
Hwæt! Wé Gárdena in géardagum
Listen! We --of the Spear-Danes in the days of
þéodcyninga þrym gefrúnon·
of those clan-kings-- heard of their glory.
hú ðá æþelingas ellen fremedon.
how those nobles performed courageous deeds.
Oft Scyld Scéfing sceaþena þréatum
Often Scyld, Scef's son, from enemy hosts
monegum maégþum meodosetla oftéah·
from many peoples seized mead-benches;
egsode Eorle syððan aérest wearð
and terrorised the fearsome Heruli after first he was
féasceaft funden hé þæs frófre gebád·
found helpless and destitute, he then knew
wéox under wolcnum· weorðmyndum þáh
he waxed under the clouds, throve in honours,
oð þæt him aéghwylc þára ymbsittendra
until to him each of the bordering tribes
ofer hronráde hýran scolde,
Him se yldesta andswarode·
He the eldest answered,
werodes wísa wordhord onléac:
the crew's captain, he unlocked his word-hoard:
'Wé synt gumcynnes Géata léode
'We are of the tribe of the Geat people
ond Higeláces heorðgenéatas·
and Hygelac's hearth-companions;
wæs mín fæder folcum gecýþed
my father was known to the folk,
æþele ordfruma Ecgþéow háten·
a noble vanguard-warrior, called Edgetheow,
gebád wintra worn aér hé on weg hwurfe
who saw many winters ere he passed away,
Him: he , se: the, yldesta: eldest, andswarode: answered, onléac: unlock, wé: we, synt: are (German sind) , gumcynnes: tribe, Géata: great ( German großer), léode: people (German: Leute), ond: and (German und), Hygeláces: Hygelac's, heordgenéatas: hearth companions, waes (was, war), mín (my, mein), faeder (father, Vater), folcum (folk), gecýped (known)
was my father folk known : my father was known to the folk
1st part present participle – subject- object- 2nd part present participle
( text, translation : http://www.heorot.dk/)
Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,
And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open eye
(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages);
Thanne longen folk to goon on
When April with his showers sweet with fruit
The drought of March has pierced unto the
And bathed each vein with liquor that has
To generate therein and sire the flower;
When Zephyr also has, with his sweet
Quickened again, in every holt and heath,
The tender shoots and buds, and the young
Into the Ram one half his course has run,
And many little birds make melody
That sleep through all the night with open
(So Nature pricks them on to ramp and
Then do folk long to go on pilgrimage,
swich licour: such liquid
Zephirus: the west wind (Zephyrus)
the Ram: Aries, the first sign of the Zodiac
priketh hem Nature: Nature pricks them
hir corages: their hearts
Old English Dialects
Modern English Dialects
Colonal language spread
1600 East India Company ( London merchants who were granted monopoly by Elisabeth 1.)
power of Mughal emperors decline -> company's influence grows
1858 power to the crown
Development of English
What are the most important stages?
Early Modern English
What is the significance of Celtic / Latin?
Base of today's English, a lot of borrowings
Which major changes happened between
Old English and Middle English?
Rise of french (Norman influence 1066)
Middle English and Modern English?
Great Vowel Shift
Where is English spoken today as a native language?
Australia, Canada, Ireland, Great Britain, USA, India, New Zealand, ...
Why is English spoken all round the world?
Check Google for works by Jennifer Jenkins - what do
16. 11. 2006 Morphology- Words and their parts
16. 11. 2006 Morphology (1) – Words and their parts held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel
Components of Words
Definition of the word „word“
Collection of proposals in the lecture
We know what a word is (!)
words make up sentences ( sentences: syntax)
pronunciation with speech sound
speech sounds= phonemes= phonology
meaningful (sub)structure of words
structure of words= morphology
What is MORPHOLOGY?
The study of the formation of words
MORPHEMES: The smallest unit of a unit that carries meaning. A word can be comprised of one or more morphemes
try: attempt to do something
try + „in the past“ : tried
try + „at the moment“ : trying
Identify the meaningful units of the following words:
● Identify -> ident – ify
● the -> the
● meaningful -> mean- ing – ful
● units -> unit-s
● of -> of
● the -> the
● following -> follow- ing
● words -> word-s
● maybe -> may-be
● some -> some
● more -> more
● complicated -> complicat- ed
● example -> example
● using -> use- ing
● witchcraft -> witch- craft
● to -> to
● find -> find
● terms -> term-s
Basic concepts in morphology
● Simple word
consists of only one morpheme.
Example: boy, man, radio, book, paper, magnet, house, compute
● Complex word
contains more than one morpheme (i.e. ≥2 morphemes).
Example: computer, boys, radio-recorder, bookshelf, magnetize, acidfree
Task: Find words
● Find at least 20 simple words
● Find at least 20 complex words
Which of them are similar?
Sunshine – raindrop ( 2 nouns/ simplex words each)
boys – shoes ( simplex word + plural „s“ )
description – similarities ( simplex word + affix)
Can you describe the similarity?
Many complex words are built in the same way
Can you find a relation between some of
your simple words and complex words?
can occur as a simple word.
Example: boy, man, radio,...
can only occur in connection with other morphemes. Example: -s, -ion, un-, -ize, ...
Task: free and bound morphemes
● Make a list of 20 free morphemes
● Find bound morphemes
-s, -ion, -ize, -ment, -ism, -al, ...
Structure of words
● several parts
● root: carries the meaning
● affixes: other parts [bound morphemes]
● prefix: affixes that attach before the root
● suffix: affixes that attach after the root
● base: form to which an affix is attached
Hierachy of concept
/ ............ \
root .......... affix
....................../ .../ .....\.... \
...........................prefix .circumfix infix suffix
Task: complete the sentences!
● Every word contains a ___base_______
● A morpheme that is also a word is called a
● A morpheme that needs a root to make up a word
is called a __bound morpheme______________
● An affix in front of a base is called a _prefix_____,
behind a base it is called a _suffix_____
● Both, simple words and complex words can be
the _base______ for a more complex word.
● Every _root___ is a _base____, but not every _base___ is a
Processes of forming words
● Other processes involved
Compounds – at least two roots
● nouns combine with
● verbs combine with
● adjectives combine with
adjectives ( red hot)
Constituents of compounds
second part of compound
● modifier: specifies the compound
● Find other compounds in English with a head that is a
noun ( rain drop)
verb (role – playing)
adjectives (cherry- red)
● Find other compounds in English with a modifier that is a
verb ( playground)
adjectives ( red skin)
prepositions ( over joy)