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21. 12. 06 Syntax

 

21. 12. 2006 Syntax ( Parts of speech categories and subcategories)



Syntax

  • In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax , 22.12.06)

  • Syntax allows you to express everything -> infinite number of sentences/ situations



Overview of today's topics

  • structural relations

  • sentence structure



Language Structure

  • structural relations

  • syntagmatic relations: combinatory relations which create larger signs (and their realisations and interpretations) from smaller signs (and their realisations and interpretations)

  • paradigmatic relations: classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • Semiotic relations

  • realisation: the visual appearance or acoustic representation of signs (other senses may also be involved).

  • interpretation: the assignment of meaning to a sign.





Structural relations: Paradigmatic Relations

  • relations of “choice”

  • classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • similarity and difference of

  • internal structure: simple vs. complex stems

  • external structure: functions in different word orders / positions

  • meaning: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, ...

  • appearance: shared and different distinctive features



Task

  • How many items in total in the left, mid, and right sets?

  • How many items in the sentence set shown?

  • How many of these actually exist, and how many do not?



{the, this, that, ...} - {girl, boy, ape, ...} - {swims, walks, ...}

  • left set: finite/ closed/ limited set ( you cannot invent new arcticles, determiners

  • mid set: infinite number ( you can invent new nouns)

  • right set: you can invent new verbs -> infinite number

  • The girl swims (exists)

  • The girl walks (e)

  • The boy swims (e)

  • The boy walks (e)

  • The ape swims (does not exist)

  • The ape walks (exists)

  • This girl swims (e)

  • This girl walks (e)

  • This boy swims (e)

  • This boy walks (e)

  • This ape swims (ne)

  • This ape walks (e)

  • That girl swims (e)

  • That girl walks (e)

  • That boy swims (e)

  • That boy walks (e)

  • That ape swims (ne)

  • That ape walks (e)

Grammatically, all these sentences would be correct but as apes cannot swim ( as far as I know), the sentence does not exist





Syntagmatic relations

  • linguistic “glue”: combinatory relations: create larger signs (& their realisations & interpretations) from smaller signs (& their realisations & interpretations)

  • Examples:

  • Phonology:

  • Consonants and Vowels are glued together as core and periphery of syllables.

  • Morphology:

  • lexical morphemes & affixes are glued together into derived stems.

  • stems are glued together into compound stems.

  • stems and inflections are glued together into words.

  • Syntax:

  • nouns and verbs are glued together as the subjects and predicates of sentences.





Pradigmatic relations in Syntax

Syntactic Categories

Lexical categories

Glue categories

Nominals

Verbals

Preposition



Conjunction

interjection

Nouns

Adjectives

Determiners

Pronouns

Main verbs

Auxiliary verbs







Syntagmatic relations in syntax

sentence

Subject

Predicate

Verbal

Object

The

Loud

Smoker

Is

Being

A

nuisance







Words, context, external structure

  • Parsing: the analysis of sentences into parts



Task:

  • Identify the part of speech of each word in this text

  • Group the words into larger units


Inquests into the deaths of four women who were killed in Suffolk have been

opened and adjourned. The hearing at Ipswich Coroner's Court found no

clear cause of death for Tania Nicol and Annette Nicholls. Anneli Alderton

was asphyxiated and Paula Clennell died from compression of the neck,

coroner Dr Peter Dean said.The inquest into the death of another victim,

Gemma Adams, was opened last week.

Police are continuing to question two men about the murders. The first

suspect, Tom Stephens, 37, was arrested on Monday. A second man being

held has been named locally as 48-year-old Stephen Wright. Both are

suspected of killing all five women.


Noun categories

Verb categories

Glue categories

Determiners

Adjectives

Nouns

Pronouns

Verb

Adverb

Prepositions

Conjunctions

interjections

the

clear

Inquests

her

Were killed

locally

into

And



Four

deaths


Have been opened


of




no

women


adjourned


in




another

Suffolk


found


At




last

Ipswich


Was aphyxiated


from




two

hearing


died


about




first

Coroner's Court


Are continuing


on




second

Cause of death


To question






All

compressions


Was arrested






five

neck


being held







inquest


Has been named







week


Are suspected







Police









Men









murder









suspect









monday









Both









killing









women












Noun categories: nouns


Proper nouns:

  • names:

  • personal

  • place

  • product

  • ...

Common nouns:

  • Countable nouns:

  • knife, fork, spoon

  • Mass nouns (uncountable nouns):

  • bread (a slice of bread)

  • butter (a piece of butter)

  • jam (a spoonful of jam)


Task:

What happens when you count “uncountable” nouns?

  • You get different kinds of bread, tea, ...



Noun categories: pronouns


Personal pronouns:

  • I/me, you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they


Possessive pronouns:

  • mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs


Demonstrative pronouns

  • proximal: this

  • distal: that, yonder (archaic)

Quantifier pronouns

  • cardinal numerals: one, two, ...

  • existential: some, several, few, many, ...

  • dual: both

  • universal: each, every, all, ...

Relative pronouns

  • more like conjunctions





Verb categories: Verbs


Main verbs

  • finite forms:

  • person (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

  • number (singular, plural)

  • tense (present, past)

non-finite forms

  • infinitive

  • participle:

  • present

  • perfect


Periphrastic verbs (auxiliary verb + non-finite main verb):

  • modal: can, may, will, shall; ought, ...

  • aspectual: be+prespart(continuous), have+pastpart (perfect), passive: be+pastpart



it might have been being repaired

modal perfect continuous passive mainverb



Verb categories: adverbs

Deictic:

  • here, there; now, then

Time (when):

  • soon, immediately, yesterday, ...

Place & direction (where):

  • upwards, into, towards

Manner (how):

  • slowly, quickly

  • cleverly, stupidly

  • nicely, nastily

  • well

  • ...

Degree

  • better dealt with in connection with adjectives





Glue categories: prepositions

Basically - make nominal expressions into adverbial

expressions

Pretty much the same categories as adverbs

Except the “all purpose preposition” of


Tasks

What is the meaning of “of”?

  • The „Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English“, 7th edition, distinguishes between 13 (!) different meanings for the word „of“.

  • belonging to sb „the paintings of Monet“

  • belonging to sth, being part of sth „ the director of the company“

  • coming from a particular background „ the people of Wales“

  • concerning or showing sth/ sb „ a photo of my dog“

  • used to say what sb/ sth is, consists of „ the city of Dublin“

  • used with measurements and expressions of time „2 kilos of potatoes“

  • used to show that sth/ sb belongs to a group „some of his friends“

  • used to show the preposition of sth/ sb in place or time „ just north of Detroit“

  • used after nouns formed from verbs „the arrival of the police“

  • used after some verbs before mentioning sth/ sb in volved in the action „ He was cleared of all blame“

  • used after some adjectives before mentioning sb/ sth that a feeling relates to „to be proud of sth“

  • used to give your on sb' s behaviour „it was kind of you to offer“

  • used when one noun describes a second one „ Where's that idiot of a boy?“


Construct prepositional phrases corresponding to the types of adverbs





Conjunctions

Co-ordinating conjunctions:

Subordinating conjunctions:


Task:


Co- ordinating conjunctions


Subordinating conjunctions




Glue categories: interjections


Interjections link parts of dialogues together:

They may also be expressions of subjective reactions:


Task:

find examples of 5 different interjections (not the ones listed here)






Phrasal Categories



Noun Phrases – definitions


The Noun Categories form larger units:

  • Adjective Phrase = (DegreeAdverb)* Adjective

  • Nominal Phrase = (Adjective Phrase)* Noun

  • Noun Phrase = (Determiner) Nominal Phrase (Relative Clause)



NP

Determiner

Nom P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

noun

D- Adv

C- Adj

Q- Adj

D- Adv

Adj

Adj

Adj

The

Very

First

Twenty- five

Extremely

Young

Smart

Yellow

ducks



Frankly speaking, I was a bit bored because I already knew all details of today's lecture from my „How to make a dictionary“ class. In my opinion it is also not very useful to define the part of speech of 25 or even more words, one example of each might be enough as we all already know the different parts of speech.

 

7.1.07 16:30
 


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