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7.12.06 Phonetics - realising sounds


7. 12. 2006 Phonetics: Realising Sounds

Phonetics: The world of speech sounds

  • different realisation of sounds in different situations ( the „p“ in „pin“ ins pronounced differently than the „p“ in „stop“ or „spin“, depending on the position in the word)

Words, stems, etc. are signs

conceptual world and the real world

  • eg. you have the conception of an Apple Pie in your mind, but the real one can look completely different

  • the same can be true for sounds

  • Conceptual world: Phonology - real world: Phonetics

The domains of phonetics

  • production : articulatory phonetics

  • transmission: acoustic phonetics

  • perception: auditory phonetics

The phonetic circle

Articulatory Phonetics ( speech organs)


Auditory Phonetics ( Ear)


Acoustic Phonetics ( speech signals)

Articulatory Phonetics

The articulatory organs

  • Lungs

  • Vocal cords in the larynx (Adam’s Apple)


  • Uvula (with back of tongue)

  • Pharynx (with velum (nasals))

  • Velum (soft palate) (contact with tongue: velars)

  • Palate (hard palate) (with tongue)

  • Alveolar ridge (Upper teeth) (with tongue, with lower lip)

  • Upper lip (with lower lip, perhaps with tongue)

Forms of representation of pronunciation

For general pronunciation representation in the lexicon:

  • phonemic transcription

  • just enough phonetic detail to distinguish words

For detailed representation of speech pronunciation:

  • phonetic transcription based on

  • articulatory phonetics (about speech production)


Articulatory phonetics tasks

Take a look at the model on the Interactive Sagittal Section

website and

  • practice with it to get used to the different combinatons of active and passive articulators

  • pronounce all the sounds you form with the website, observing the movements of your articulatory organs

t the lips are spread, the tounge is pressed against the alveolar

f the lower lip is pressed agains the upper teeth, tounge is not used

v same position as f but voiced

7.1.07 16:11

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