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23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts- Morphology (2)

 

23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts - Morphology (2) held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel



Revision

antidisestablishmentarianism ( attempt to separate the state from the curch)

  • anti + disestablishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • dis + establishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • establishment + arianism (root + bound morpheme)

  • establish + ment ( free morpheme + bound morpheme)





Compounds: At least two roots

  • noun combine with

  • noun (fire engine)

  • adjective ( greenhouse)

  • verbs ( swimming suit)



head: noun

  • wall paper

  • table cloth

  • ring finger

  • patch work

  • police officer

  • watermelon

  • birthday

  • raindrop



head: verb

  • highlight

  • undercut

  • offset

  • upflow



head: adjective

  • headstrong

  • squeaky clean

  • snow white





Derivation

  • process of adding a morpheme to a base by which the meaning and/or wordclass of the base changes


Example derivations

Base

Affix

Result

Write verb

- er

Writer noun

Write verb

- ing

Writing noun

Write verb

re-

Rewrite verb

Treat verb

-ment

Treatment noun

Treat verb

Mis-

Mistreat verb

Treat verb

Mis- , -ment

Mistreatment noun





Consequences of derivation

  • Suffixes change the wordclass of the base, prefixes the meaning

  • Derived words are productive, i.e. they can be used for further word formation, either serving as a base in derivation, or they can be inflected.

  • The list of derivational affixes is fixed (it is a closed class).





Some English suffixes

Suffix

Wordclass (base)

Derived wordclass

- able

Verb

Adjective

-ant

Verb

Noun

-(a)tion

Verb

Noun

-er

Verb

Noun

-less

Noun

Adjective

-ly

Adjective

Adverb

-ness

Adjective

Noun

-ment

Verb

Noun

-ous

Noun

Adjective





Some English prefixes

  • anti

  • de

  • dis

  • ex

  • in

  • mis

  • re

  • un-



Zero Derivation

  • special phenomenon in English

  • words can change wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (=by adding an empty morpheme)


Base

Derived

Xerox

To xerox

Thread

To thread

House

To house





Task

  • select of the following parts of speech 3 each:

  • verbs : play, work, write

  • nouns: bird, wall, table

  • adjectives: small, red, long

     

  • derive as many words as possible from them!ab

  • Playground, player, played, playing, playable,...

  • worker, worked, working, workable,..

  • writer, writing, rewrite, writable,...

  • ladybird, birdish,...

  • wallpaper, chinese wall,...

  • table cloth, coffetable, tablewater,...

  • smaller,...

  • redish, redly,...

  • longous, longly, longer,...

1.12.06 19:40
 


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