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22.1.07 14:31

21. 12. 06 Syntax


21. 12. 2006 Syntax ( Parts of speech categories and subcategories)


  • In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences. ( , 22.12.06)

  • Syntax allows you to express everything -> infinite number of sentences/ situations

Overview of today's topics

  • structural relations

  • sentence structure

Language Structure

  • structural relations

  • syntagmatic relations: combinatory relations which create larger signs (and their realisations and interpretations) from smaller signs (and their realisations and interpretations)

  • paradigmatic relations: classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • Semiotic relations

  • realisation: the visual appearance or acoustic representation of signs (other senses may also be involved).

  • interpretation: the assignment of meaning to a sign.

Structural relations: Paradigmatic Relations

  • relations of “choice”

  • classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • similarity and difference of

  • internal structure: simple vs. complex stems

  • external structure: functions in different word orders / positions

  • meaning: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, ...

  • appearance: shared and different distinctive features


  • How many items in total in the left, mid, and right sets?

  • How many items in the sentence set shown?

  • How many of these actually exist, and how many do not?

{the, this, that, ...} - {girl, boy, ape, ...} - {swims, walks, ...}

  • left set: finite/ closed/ limited set ( you cannot invent new arcticles, determiners

  • mid set: infinite number ( you can invent new nouns)

  • right set: you can invent new verbs -> infinite number

  • The girl swims (exists)

  • The girl walks (e)

  • The boy swims (e)

  • The boy walks (e)

  • The ape swims (does not exist)

  • The ape walks (exists)

  • This girl swims (e)

  • This girl walks (e)

  • This boy swims (e)

  • This boy walks (e)

  • This ape swims (ne)

  • This ape walks (e)

  • That girl swims (e)

  • That girl walks (e)

  • That boy swims (e)

  • That boy walks (e)

  • That ape swims (ne)

  • That ape walks (e)

Grammatically, all these sentences would be correct but as apes cannot swim ( as far as I know), the sentence does not exist

Syntagmatic relations

  • linguistic “glue”: combinatory relations: create larger signs (& their realisations & interpretations) from smaller signs (& their realisations & interpretations)

  • Examples:

  • Phonology:

  • Consonants and Vowels are glued together as core and periphery of syllables.

  • Morphology:

  • lexical morphemes & affixes are glued together into derived stems.

  • stems are glued together into compound stems.

  • stems and inflections are glued together into words.

  • Syntax:

  • nouns and verbs are glued together as the subjects and predicates of sentences.

Pradigmatic relations in Syntax

Syntactic Categories

Lexical categories

Glue categories










Main verbs

Auxiliary verbs

Syntagmatic relations in syntax













Words, context, external structure

  • Parsing: the analysis of sentences into parts


  • Identify the part of speech of each word in this text

  • Group the words into larger units

Inquests into the deaths of four women who were killed in Suffolk have been

opened and adjourned. The hearing at Ipswich Coroner's Court found no

clear cause of death for Tania Nicol and Annette Nicholls. Anneli Alderton

was asphyxiated and Paula Clennell died from compression of the neck,

coroner Dr Peter Dean said.The inquest into the death of another victim,

Gemma Adams, was opened last week.

Police are continuing to question two men about the murders. The first

suspect, Tom Stephens, 37, was arrested on Monday. A second man being

held has been named locally as 48-year-old Stephen Wright. Both are

suspected of killing all five women.

Noun categories

Verb categories

Glue categories














Were killed






Have been opened












Was aphyxiated







Coroner's Court

Are continuing



Cause of death

To question



Was arrested



being held


Has been named


Are suspected









Noun categories: nouns

Proper nouns:

  • names:

  • personal

  • place

  • product

  • ...

Common nouns:

  • Countable nouns:

  • knife, fork, spoon

  • Mass nouns (uncountable nouns):

  • bread (a slice of bread)

  • butter (a piece of butter)

  • jam (a spoonful of jam)


What happens when you count “uncountable” nouns?

  • You get different kinds of bread, tea, ...

Noun categories: pronouns

Personal pronouns:

  • I/me, you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they

Possessive pronouns:

  • mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs

Demonstrative pronouns

  • proximal: this

  • distal: that, yonder (archaic)

Quantifier pronouns

  • cardinal numerals: one, two, ...

  • existential: some, several, few, many, ...

  • dual: both

  • universal: each, every, all, ...

Relative pronouns

  • more like conjunctions

Verb categories: Verbs

Main verbs

  • finite forms:

  • person (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

  • number (singular, plural)

  • tense (present, past)

non-finite forms

  • infinitive

  • participle:

  • present

  • perfect

Periphrastic verbs (auxiliary verb + non-finite main verb):

  • modal: can, may, will, shall; ought, ...

  • aspectual: be+prespart(continuous), have+pastpart (perfect), passive: be+pastpart

it might have been being repaired

modal perfect continuous passive mainverb

Verb categories: adverbs


  • here, there; now, then

Time (when):

  • soon, immediately, yesterday, ...

Place & direction (where):

  • upwards, into, towards

Manner (how):

  • slowly, quickly

  • cleverly, stupidly

  • nicely, nastily

  • well

  • ...


  • better dealt with in connection with adjectives

Glue categories: prepositions

Basically - make nominal expressions into adverbial


Pretty much the same categories as adverbs

Except the “all purpose preposition” of


What is the meaning of “of”?

  • The „Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English“, 7th edition, distinguishes between 13 (!) different meanings for the word „of“.

  • belonging to sb „the paintings of Monet“

  • belonging to sth, being part of sth „ the director of the company“

  • coming from a particular background „ the people of Wales“

  • concerning or showing sth/ sb „ a photo of my dog“

  • used to say what sb/ sth is, consists of „ the city of Dublin“

  • used with measurements and expressions of time „2 kilos of potatoes“

  • used to show that sth/ sb belongs to a group „some of his friends“

  • used to show the preposition of sth/ sb in place or time „ just north of Detroit“

  • used after nouns formed from verbs „the arrival of the police“

  • used after some verbs before mentioning sth/ sb in volved in the action „ He was cleared of all blame“

  • used after some adjectives before mentioning sb/ sth that a feeling relates to „to be proud of sth“

  • used to give your on sb' s behaviour „it was kind of you to offer“

  • used when one noun describes a second one „ Where's that idiot of a boy?“

Construct prepositional phrases corresponding to the types of adverbs


Co-ordinating conjunctions:

Subordinating conjunctions:


Co- ordinating conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions

Glue categories: interjections

Interjections link parts of dialogues together:

They may also be expressions of subjective reactions:


find examples of 5 different interjections (not the ones listed here)

Phrasal Categories

Noun Phrases – definitions

The Noun Categories form larger units:

  • Adjective Phrase = (DegreeAdverb)* Adjective

  • Nominal Phrase = (Adjective Phrase)* Noun

  • Noun Phrase = (Determiner) Nominal Phrase (Relative Clause)



Nom P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P


D- Adv

C- Adj

Q- Adj

D- Adv







Twenty- five






Frankly speaking, I was a bit bored because I already knew all details of today's lecture from my „How to make a dictionary“ class. In my opinion it is also not very useful to define the part of speech of 25 or even more words, one example of each might be enough as we all already know the different parts of speech.


7.1.07 16:30

14. 12. 06 Phonetics - The world of speech sounds


14. 12. 2006 Phonetics – Realising Sounds

Phonetics – The world of speech sounds


  • Words, stems, etc are signs

The conceptual world

When I say the word „Apple Pie“ I produce the sounds (Phonology) /^pl pai/ and if I write it down you can read the letters a-p-p-l-e- -p-i-e (Orthography). When I say the word I have a special definition of the word „apple pie“ ( probably a pie made out of apples) or a model ( maybe of an apple pie I made before) in my head. Of course I could also look at the internal and external word structure. „Apple Pie“ is a compound made out of two nouns. But this all happens in my mind.

The real world

A real apple pie might look completely different than the model I had in my head or the definition I thought of.

What you can also see in the real world are the utterances of my pronunciation which is then called phonetics.


Speech transmission – Acoustic Phonetics

The Articulatory Domain

  • The IPA (A = Alphabet / Association)

  • The Source-Filter Model of Speech Production

The Acoustic Domain

  • The Speech Wave-Form

  • Basic Speech Signal Parameters

  • The Time Domain: the Speech Wave-Form

  • The Frequency Domain: simple & complex signals

Fourier Analysis: the Spectrum

Pitch extraction

  • Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion

The Auditory Domain

  • Anatomy of the Ear

The Sourse- Filter Model

The Speech Wave Form ( „Tiger&ldquo

Speech Perception – The ear


  • Take a look at the model on the Interactive Sagittal Section website and practice with it to get used to the different combinations of active and passive articulators

  • pronounce all the sounds you form with the website, observing the movements of your articulatory organs

  • Download the Praat software on to your computer:

  • install it

  • read an audio file

  • experiment with the software

  • consult the help files

  • Take a look at models of the ear: summarise the functions of the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear

Outer Ear

  • microphone

  • pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum

  • The outer ear is the most external portion of the ear.

  • The outer ear includes the pinna (also called auricle), the ear canal, and the very most superficial layer of the ear drum (also called the tympanic membrane).

  • In humans, and almost all vertebrates, the only visible portion of the ear is the outer ear.

  • The complicated design of the human outer ear does help capture sound, but the most important functional aspect of the human outer ear is the ear canal itself. Unless the canal is open, hearing will be dampened. Ear wax (medical name - cerumen) is produced by glands in the skin of the outer portion of the ear canal. This outer ear canal skin is applied to cartilage; the thinner skin of the deep canal lies on the bone of the skull. Only the thicker cerumen-producing ear canal skin has hairs. The outer ear ends at the most superficial layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is commonly called the ear drum.

  • The pinna helps direct sound through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). In some animals with mobile pinnae (like the horse), each pinna can be aimed independently to better receive the sound. For these animals, the pinnae help localize the direction of the sound source. Human beings localize sound within the central nervous system, by comparing loudness from each ear in brain circuits that are connected to both ears.

    ( )

7.1.07 16:22

7.12.06 Phonetics - realising sounds


7. 12. 2006 Phonetics: Realising Sounds

Phonetics: The world of speech sounds

  • different realisation of sounds in different situations ( the „p“ in „pin“ ins pronounced differently than the „p“ in „stop“ or „spin“, depending on the position in the word)

Words, stems, etc. are signs

conceptual world and the real world

  • eg. you have the conception of an Apple Pie in your mind, but the real one can look completely different

  • the same can be true for sounds

  • Conceptual world: Phonology - real world: Phonetics

The domains of phonetics

  • production : articulatory phonetics

  • transmission: acoustic phonetics

  • perception: auditory phonetics

The phonetic circle

Articulatory Phonetics ( speech organs)


Auditory Phonetics ( Ear)


Acoustic Phonetics ( speech signals)

Articulatory Phonetics

The articulatory organs

  • Lungs

  • Vocal cords in the larynx (Adam’s Apple)


  • Uvula (with back of tongue)

  • Pharynx (with velum (nasals))

  • Velum (soft palate) (contact with tongue: velars)

  • Palate (hard palate) (with tongue)

  • Alveolar ridge (Upper teeth) (with tongue, with lower lip)

  • Upper lip (with lower lip, perhaps with tongue)

Forms of representation of pronunciation

For general pronunciation representation in the lexicon:

  • phonemic transcription

  • just enough phonetic detail to distinguish words

For detailed representation of speech pronunciation:

  • phonetic transcription based on

  • articulatory phonetics (about speech production)


Articulatory phonetics tasks

Take a look at the model on the Interactive Sagittal Section

website and

  • practice with it to get used to the different combinatons of active and passive articulators

  • pronounce all the sounds you form with the website, observing the movements of your articulatory organs

t the lips are spread, the tounge is pressed against the alveolar

f the lower lip is pressed agains the upper teeth, tounge is not used

v same position as f but voiced

7.1.07 16:11

30. 11. 2006 Morphology - Word construction


30. 11. 2006 Morphology – Word construction

Revision: Basic concepts in morphology

Grammatical morphemes ( affixes or free morphemes, fixed number)

  • cats ( unvoiced)

  • dogs ( voiced)

  • horses ( voiced)

  • sheep_

  • oxen

  • men, women ( vowel change)

Lexical morphemes

  • free morphemes

  • can be found in the dictionary

  • you can invent new ones ( web + blog = weblog)


  • nouns combined with nouns/ adjectives, ...

  • fire engine -> what kind of engine

  • endocentric compound

  • red skin -> Indian, NOT what kind of skin BUT who has that kind of skin


  • English words consist of

  • a stem

  • an inflection

A stem

An inflection

  • Has a lexical meaning

  • Has a grammatical meaning

  • relates a word to its syntactic context

  • subject verb agreement ( person, case, number)

  • relates a word to its semantic context

  • tense, time, quantity, speaker addressee

  • eg. table, chair, ...

  • eg. cats, dogs, children, ...

Inflections of English words



  • morpheme

  • a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning.

  • lexical morpheme

  • Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness."

  • grammatical morpheme

  • Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on. (as in the dog morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme s becomes dogs).

  • Stem

  • the combination of the basic form of a word (called the root) plus any derivational morphemes, but excluding inflectional elements

  • derived stem

  • stem + affix

  • compound stem

  • stem + another stem

What is the difference between inflection and derivation?

  • Inflection : the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person.

  • derivation: the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. It is a kind of word formation.

What is the difference between derivation and


  • Derivation

  • compounding: A compound is a word (lexeme) that consists of more than one free morpheme.

Collect 5 longish words and

  • divide them into morphemes

  • show construction of a word from their stems as tree diagrammes


  • mis – treat – ment

  • treat -> mistreat -> mistreatment


  • anti – lock – brake – ing – system

  • lock -> antilock

  • brake -> braking

7.1.07 15:17

23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts- Morphology (2)


23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts - Morphology (2) held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel


antidisestablishmentarianism ( attempt to separate the state from the curch)

  • anti + disestablishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • dis + establishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • establishment + arianism (root + bound morpheme)

  • establish + ment ( free morpheme + bound morpheme)

Compounds: At least two roots

  • noun combine with

  • noun (fire engine)

  • adjective ( greenhouse)

  • verbs ( swimming suit)

head: noun

  • wall paper

  • table cloth

  • ring finger

  • patch work

  • police officer

  • watermelon

  • birthday

  • raindrop

head: verb

  • highlight

  • undercut

  • offset

  • upflow

head: adjective

  • headstrong

  • squeaky clean

  • snow white


  • process of adding a morpheme to a base by which the meaning and/or wordclass of the base changes

Example derivations




Write verb

- er

Writer noun

Write verb

- ing

Writing noun

Write verb


Rewrite verb

Treat verb


Treatment noun

Treat verb


Mistreat verb

Treat verb

Mis- , -ment

Mistreatment noun

Consequences of derivation

  • Suffixes change the wordclass of the base, prefixes the meaning

  • Derived words are productive, i.e. they can be used for further word formation, either serving as a base in derivation, or they can be inflected.

  • The list of derivational affixes is fixed (it is a closed class).

Some English suffixes


Wordclass (base)

Derived wordclass

- able



























Some English prefixes

  • anti

  • de

  • dis

  • ex

  • in

  • mis

  • re

  • un-

Zero Derivation

  • special phenomenon in English

  • words can change wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (=by adding an empty morpheme)




To xerox


To thread


To house


  • select of the following parts of speech 3 each:

  • verbs : play, work, write

  • nouns: bird, wall, table

  • adjectives: small, red, long


  • derive as many words as possible from them!ab

  • Playground, player, played, playing, playable,...

  • worker, worked, working, workable,..

  • writer, writing, rewrite, writable,...

  • ladybird, birdish,...

  • wallpaper, chinese wall,...

  • table cloth, coffetable, tablewater,...

  • smaller,...

  • redish, redly,...

  • longous, longly, longer,...

1.12.06 19:40

16. 11. 2006 Morphology- Words and their parts


16. 11. 2006 Morphology (1) – Words and their parts held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel

Components of Words

Word formation

  • simplex words

  • derived words

  • compound words

Definition of the word „word“

Collection of proposals in the lecture

  • combination of letters that make sense or have a special meaning

  • consists of letters

  • carries meaning

  • can be spoken

  • simple unit of language

  • written sound

  • used to form sentences

  • ...


  • We know what a word is (!)

  • words make up sentences ( sentences: syntax)

  • pronunciation with speech sound

  • speech sounds= phonemes= phonology

  • meaningful (sub)structure of words

  • structure of words= morphology


  • The study of the formation of words

  • MORPHEMES: The smallest unit of a unit that carries meaning. A word can be comprised of one or more morphemes

  • try: attempt to do something

  • try + „in the past“ : tried

  • try + „at the moment“ : trying

Identify the meaningful units of the following words:

Identify -> ident – ify

the -> the

meaningful -> mean- ing – ful

units -> unit-s

of -> of

the -> the

following -> follow- ing

words -> word-s

maybe -> may-be

some -> some

more -> more

complicated -> complicat- ed

example -> example

using -> use- ing

witchcraft -> witch- craft

to -> to

find -> find

terms -> term-s

Basic concepts in morphology

Simple word

  • consists of only one morpheme.

  • Example: boy, man, radio, book, paper, magnet, house, compute

Complex word

  • contains more than one morpheme (i.e. ≥2 morphemes).

  • Example: computer, boys, radio-recorder, bookshelf, magnetize, acidfree

Task: Find words

Find at least 20 simple words

  • boy

  • mother

  • table

  • father

  • desk

  • lamp

  • pupil

  • shoe

  • house

  • mouse

  • cat

  • dog

  • tiger

  • water

  • food

  • book

  • play

  • paper

  • shoe

  • pen

Find at least 20 complex words

  • rainbow

  • boys

  • shoes

  • teddy bear

  • pencil- case

  • bookshelves

  • ice cream

  • sunshine

  • raindrop

  • orange juice

  • birthday

  • table cloth

  • necklace

  • computer

  • wallpaper

  • cups

  • pre- prepared

  • teacher

  • description

  • establishment

  • similarities

Which of them are similar?

  • Sunshine – raindrop ( 2 nouns/ simplex words each)

  • boys – shoes ( simplex word + plural „s“ )

  • description – similarities ( simplex word + affix)


  • Can you describe the similarity?

  • Many complex words are built in the same way


Can you find a relation between some of

your simple words and complex words?

  • Boy – boys ( simple word – simple word plus plural s)



Free morpheme

  • can occur as a simple word.

  • Example: boy, man, radio,...

Bound morpheme

  • can only occur in connection with other morphemes. Example: -s, -ion, un-, -ize, ...


  • Variant forms of a morpheme

  • Example: a -- an, plural -s /s/ -- /Iz/ -- /z/

Task: free and bound morphemes

Make a list of 20 free morphemes

  • -> see list of simple words


Find bound morphemes

  • -s, -ion, -ize, -ment, -ism, -al, ...

Structure of words

several parts

root: carries the meaning

  • unbelievable: believe

affixes: other parts [bound morphemes]

prefix: affixes that attach before the root

suffix: affixes that attach after the root

  • example: In unbelievable “un” is a prefix and “able” a suffix.

base: form to which an affix is attached

Hierachy of concept


/   ............   \

root ..........    affix

....................../ .../ .....\.... \

...........................prefix .circumfix infix suffix

Task: complete the sentences!

Every word contains a ___base_______

A morpheme that is also a word is called a

____free morpheme_______________

A morpheme that needs a root to make up a word

is called a __bound morpheme______________

An affix in front of a base is called a _prefix_____,

behind a base it is called a _suffix_____

Both, simple words and complex words can be

the _base______ for a more complex word.

Every _root___ is a _base____, but not every _base___ is a


Processes of forming words



Other processes involved

  • inflection

Compounds – at least two roots

nouns combine with

  • nouns (fire engine),

  • adjectives (greenhouse),

  • verbs (swimming suit) and

  • prepositions (afterthought)

verbs combine with

  • adjectives (dry clean),

  • verbs (breakdance)

  • prepositions (underestimate)

adjectives combine with

  • prepositions (ingrown)

  • adjectives ( red hot)

Constituents of compounds


  • second part of compound

  • word class

modifier: specifies the compound


Find other compounds in English with a head that is a

  • noun ( rain drop)

  • verb (role – playing)

  • adjectives (cherry- red)

Find other compounds in English with a modifier that is a

  • noun (sunshine)

  • verb ( playground)

  • adjectives ( red skin)

  • prepositions ( over joy)

30.11.06 20:10

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