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22.1.07 14:31


21. 12. 06 Syntax

 

21. 12. 2006 Syntax ( Parts of speech categories and subcategories)



Syntax

  • In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax , 22.12.06)

  • Syntax allows you to express everything -> infinite number of sentences/ situations



Overview of today's topics

  • structural relations

  • sentence structure



Language Structure

  • structural relations

  • syntagmatic relations: combinatory relations which create larger signs (and their realisations and interpretations) from smaller signs (and their realisations and interpretations)

  • paradigmatic relations: classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • Semiotic relations

  • realisation: the visual appearance or acoustic representation of signs (other senses may also be involved).

  • interpretation: the assignment of meaning to a sign.





Structural relations: Paradigmatic Relations

  • relations of “choice”

  • classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • similarity and difference of

  • internal structure: simple vs. complex stems

  • external structure: functions in different word orders / positions

  • meaning: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, ...

  • appearance: shared and different distinctive features



Task

  • How many items in total in the left, mid, and right sets?

  • How many items in the sentence set shown?

  • How many of these actually exist, and how many do not?



{the, this, that, ...} - {girl, boy, ape, ...} - {swims, walks, ...}

  • left set: finite/ closed/ limited set ( you cannot invent new arcticles, determiners

  • mid set: infinite number ( you can invent new nouns)

  • right set: you can invent new verbs -> infinite number

  • The girl swims (exists)

  • The girl walks (e)

  • The boy swims (e)

  • The boy walks (e)

  • The ape swims (does not exist)

  • The ape walks (exists)

  • This girl swims (e)

  • This girl walks (e)

  • This boy swims (e)

  • This boy walks (e)

  • This ape swims (ne)

  • This ape walks (e)

  • That girl swims (e)

  • That girl walks (e)

  • That boy swims (e)

  • That boy walks (e)

  • That ape swims (ne)

  • That ape walks (e)

Grammatically, all these sentences would be correct but as apes cannot swim ( as far as I know), the sentence does not exist





Syntagmatic relations

  • linguistic “glue”: combinatory relations: create larger signs (& their realisations & interpretations) from smaller signs (& their realisations & interpretations)

  • Examples:

  • Phonology:

  • Consonants and Vowels are glued together as core and periphery of syllables.

  • Morphology:

  • lexical morphemes & affixes are glued together into derived stems.

  • stems are glued together into compound stems.

  • stems and inflections are glued together into words.

  • Syntax:

  • nouns and verbs are glued together as the subjects and predicates of sentences.





Pradigmatic relations in Syntax

Syntactic Categories

Lexical categories

Glue categories

Nominals

Verbals

Preposition



Conjunction

interjection

Nouns

Adjectives

Determiners

Pronouns

Main verbs

Auxiliary verbs







Syntagmatic relations in syntax

sentence

Subject

Predicate

Verbal

Object

The

Loud

Smoker

Is

Being

A

nuisance







Words, context, external structure

  • Parsing: the analysis of sentences into parts



Task:

  • Identify the part of speech of each word in this text

  • Group the words into larger units


Inquests into the deaths of four women who were killed in Suffolk have been

opened and adjourned. The hearing at Ipswich Coroner's Court found no

clear cause of death for Tania Nicol and Annette Nicholls. Anneli Alderton

was asphyxiated and Paula Clennell died from compression of the neck,

coroner Dr Peter Dean said.The inquest into the death of another victim,

Gemma Adams, was opened last week.

Police are continuing to question two men about the murders. The first

suspect, Tom Stephens, 37, was arrested on Monday. A second man being

held has been named locally as 48-year-old Stephen Wright. Both are

suspected of killing all five women.


Noun categories

Verb categories

Glue categories

Determiners

Adjectives

Nouns

Pronouns

Verb

Adverb

Prepositions

Conjunctions

interjections

the

clear

Inquests

her

Were killed

locally

into

And



Four

deaths


Have been opened


of




no

women


adjourned


in




another

Suffolk


found


At




last

Ipswich


Was aphyxiated


from




two

hearing


died


about




first

Coroner's Court


Are continuing


on




second

Cause of death


To question






All

compressions


Was arrested






five

neck


being held







inquest


Has been named







week


Are suspected







Police









Men









murder









suspect









monday









Both









killing









women












Noun categories: nouns


Proper nouns:

  • names:

  • personal

  • place

  • product

  • ...

Common nouns:

  • Countable nouns:

  • knife, fork, spoon

  • Mass nouns (uncountable nouns):

  • bread (a slice of bread)

  • butter (a piece of butter)

  • jam (a spoonful of jam)


Task:

What happens when you count “uncountable” nouns?

  • You get different kinds of bread, tea, ...



Noun categories: pronouns


Personal pronouns:

  • I/me, you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they


Possessive pronouns:

  • mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs


Demonstrative pronouns

  • proximal: this

  • distal: that, yonder (archaic)

Quantifier pronouns

  • cardinal numerals: one, two, ...

  • existential: some, several, few, many, ...

  • dual: both

  • universal: each, every, all, ...

Relative pronouns

  • more like conjunctions





Verb categories: Verbs


Main verbs

  • finite forms:

  • person (1st, 2nd, 3rd)

  • number (singular, plural)

  • tense (present, past)

non-finite forms

  • infinitive

  • participle:

  • present

  • perfect


Periphrastic verbs (auxiliary verb + non-finite main verb):

  • modal: can, may, will, shall; ought, ...

  • aspectual: be+prespart(continuous), have+pastpart (perfect), passive: be+pastpart



it might have been being repaired

modal perfect continuous passive mainverb



Verb categories: adverbs

Deictic:

  • here, there; now, then

Time (when):

  • soon, immediately, yesterday, ...

Place & direction (where):

  • upwards, into, towards

Manner (how):

  • slowly, quickly

  • cleverly, stupidly

  • nicely, nastily

  • well

  • ...

Degree

  • better dealt with in connection with adjectives





Glue categories: prepositions

Basically - make nominal expressions into adverbial

expressions

Pretty much the same categories as adverbs

Except the “all purpose preposition” of


Tasks

What is the meaning of “of”?

  • The „Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English“, 7th edition, distinguishes between 13 (!) different meanings for the word „of“.

  • belonging to sb „the paintings of Monet“

  • belonging to sth, being part of sth „ the director of the company“

  • coming from a particular background „ the people of Wales“

  • concerning or showing sth/ sb „ a photo of my dog“

  • used to say what sb/ sth is, consists of „ the city of Dublin“

  • used with measurements and expressions of time „2 kilos of potatoes“

  • used to show that sth/ sb belongs to a group „some of his friends“

  • used to show the preposition of sth/ sb in place or time „ just north of Detroit“

  • used after nouns formed from verbs „the arrival of the police“

  • used after some verbs before mentioning sth/ sb in volved in the action „ He was cleared of all blame“

  • used after some adjectives before mentioning sb/ sth that a feeling relates to „to be proud of sth“

  • used to give your on sb' s behaviour „it was kind of you to offer“

  • used when one noun describes a second one „ Where's that idiot of a boy?“


Construct prepositional phrases corresponding to the types of adverbs





Conjunctions

Co-ordinating conjunctions:

Subordinating conjunctions:


Task:


Co- ordinating conjunctions


Subordinating conjunctions




Glue categories: interjections


Interjections link parts of dialogues together:

They may also be expressions of subjective reactions:


Task:

find examples of 5 different interjections (not the ones listed here)






Phrasal Categories



Noun Phrases – definitions


The Noun Categories form larger units:

  • Adjective Phrase = (DegreeAdverb)* Adjective

  • Nominal Phrase = (Adjective Phrase)* Noun

  • Noun Phrase = (Determiner) Nominal Phrase (Relative Clause)



NP

Determiner

Nom P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

Adj P

noun

D- Adv

C- Adj

Q- Adj

D- Adv

Adj

Adj

Adj

The

Very

First

Twenty- five

Extremely

Young

Smart

Yellow

ducks



Frankly speaking, I was a bit bored because I already knew all details of today's lecture from my „How to make a dictionary“ class. In my opinion it is also not very useful to define the part of speech of 25 or even more words, one example of each might be enough as we all already know the different parts of speech.

 

7.1.07 16:30


14. 12. 06 Phonetics - The world of speech sounds

 

14. 12. 2006 Phonetics – Realising Sounds

Phonetics – The world of speech sounds



Revision

  • Words, stems, etc are signs

The conceptual world

When I say the word „Apple Pie“ I produce the sounds (Phonology) /^pl pai/ and if I write it down you can read the letters a-p-p-l-e- -p-i-e (Orthography). When I say the word I have a special definition of the word „apple pie“ ( probably a pie made out of apples) or a model ( maybe of an apple pie I made before) in my head. Of course I could also look at the internal and external word structure. „Apple Pie“ is a compound made out of two nouns. But this all happens in my mind.



The real world

A real apple pie might look completely different than the model I had in my head or the definition I thought of.

What you can also see in the real world are the utterances of my pronunciation which is then called phonetics.



Phonetics



Speech transmission – Acoustic Phonetics



The Articulatory Domain

  • The IPA (A = Alphabet / Association)

  • The Source-Filter Model of Speech Production


The Acoustic Domain

  • The Speech Wave-Form

  • Basic Speech Signal Parameters

  • The Time Domain: the Speech Wave-Form

  • The Frequency Domain: simple & complex signals


Fourier Analysis: the Spectrum


Pitch extraction

  • Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion


The Auditory Domain

  • Anatomy of the Ear





The Sourse- Filter Model


The Speech Wave Form ( „Tiger&ldquo





Speech Perception – The ear



Homework

  • Take a look at the model on the Interactive Sagittal Section website and practice with it to get used to the different combinations of active and passive articulators

  • pronounce all the sounds you form with the website, observing the movements of your articulatory organs

  • Download the Praat software on to your computer:

  • install it

  • read an audio file

  • experiment with the software

  • consult the help files

  • Take a look at models of the ear: summarise the functions of the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear













Outer Ear

  • microphone

  • pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum

  • The outer ear is the most external portion of the ear.

  • The outer ear includes the pinna (also called auricle), the ear canal, and the very most superficial layer of the ear drum (also called the tympanic membrane).

  • In humans, and almost all vertebrates, the only visible portion of the ear is the outer ear.

  • The complicated design of the human outer ear does help capture sound, but the most important functional aspect of the human outer ear is the ear canal itself. Unless the canal is open, hearing will be dampened. Ear wax (medical name - cerumen) is produced by glands in the skin of the outer portion of the ear canal. This outer ear canal skin is applied to cartilage; the thinner skin of the deep canal lies on the bone of the skull. Only the thicker cerumen-producing ear canal skin has hairs. The outer ear ends at the most superficial layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is commonly called the ear drum.

  • The pinna helps direct sound through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). In some animals with mobile pinnae (like the horse), each pinna can be aimed independently to better receive the sound. For these animals, the pinnae help localize the direction of the sound source. Human beings localize sound within the central nervous system, by comparing loudness from each ear in brain circuits that are connected to both ears.

    ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear )

7.1.07 16:22


7.12.06 Phonetics - realising sounds

 

7. 12. 2006 Phonetics: Realising Sounds


Phonetics: The world of speech sounds


  • different realisation of sounds in different situations ( the „p“ in „pin“ ins pronounced differently than the „p“ in „stop“ or „spin“, depending on the position in the word)



Words, stems, etc. are signs

conceptual world and the real world

  • eg. you have the conception of an Apple Pie in your mind, but the real one can look completely different

  • the same can be true for sounds

  • Conceptual world: Phonology - real world: Phonetics



The domains of phonetics

  • production : articulatory phonetics

  • transmission: acoustic phonetics

  • perception: auditory phonetics



The phonetic circle

Articulatory Phonetics ( speech organs)

->

Auditory Phonetics ( Ear)

->

Acoustic Phonetics ( speech signals)





Articulatory Phonetics


The articulatory organs

  • Lungs

  • Vocal cords in the larynx (Adam’s Apple)

Positions:

  • Uvula (with back of tongue)

  • Pharynx (with velum (nasals))

  • Velum (soft palate) (contact with tongue: velars)

  • Palate (hard palate) (with tongue)

  • Alveolar ridge (Upper teeth) (with tongue, with lower lip)

  • Upper lip (with lower lip, perhaps with tongue)





Forms of representation of pronunciation


For general pronunciation representation in the lexicon:

  • phonemic transcription

  • just enough phonetic detail to distinguish words

For detailed representation of speech pronunciation:

  • phonetic transcription based on

  • articulatory phonetics (about speech production)





Homework

Articulatory phonetics tasks

Take a look at the model on the Interactive Sagittal Section

website and

  • practice with it to get used to the different combinatons of active and passive articulators

  • pronounce all the sounds you form with the website, observing the movements of your articulatory organs

t the lips are spread, the tounge is pressed against the alveolar

f the lower lip is pressed agains the upper teeth, tounge is not used

v same position as f but voiced


7.1.07 16:11


30. 11. 2006 Morphology - Word construction

 

30. 11. 2006 Morphology – Word construction



Revision: Basic concepts in morphology



Grammatical morphemes ( affixes or free morphemes, fixed number)

  • cats ( unvoiced)

  • dogs ( voiced)

  • horses ( voiced)

  • sheep_

  • oxen

  • men, women ( vowel change)



Lexical morphemes

  • free morphemes

  • can be found in the dictionary

  • you can invent new ones ( web + blog = weblog)





Compounds

  • nouns combined with nouns/ adjectives, ...

  • fire engine -> what kind of engine

  • endocentric compound

  • red skin -> Indian, NOT what kind of skin BUT who has that kind of skin

Morphology

  • English words consist of

  • a stem

  • an inflection



A stem

An inflection

  • Has a lexical meaning

  • Has a grammatical meaning

  • relates a word to its syntactic context

  • subject verb agreement ( person, case, number)

  • relates a word to its semantic context

  • tense, time, quantity, speaker addressee

  • eg. table, chair, ...

  • eg. cats, dogs, children, ...







Inflections of English words



















































Homework

Define

  • morpheme

  • a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning.

  • lexical morpheme

  • Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of "-ness" to "happy," for example, to give "happiness."

  • grammatical morpheme

  • Inflectional morphemes modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on. (as in the dog morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme s becomes dogs).

  • Stem

  • the combination of the basic form of a word (called the root) plus any derivational morphemes, but excluding inflectional elements

  • derived stem

  • stem + affix

  • compound stem

  • stem + another stem

What is the difference between inflection and derivation?

  • Inflection : the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person.

  • derivation: the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. It is a kind of word formation.


What is the difference between derivation and

compounding?

  • Derivation

  • compounding: A compound is a word (lexeme) that consists of more than one free morpheme.

Collect 5 longish words and

  • divide them into morphemes

  • show construction of a word from their stems as tree diagrammes



mistreatment

  • mis – treat – ment

  • treat -> mistreat -> mistreatment



antilockbrakingsystem

  • anti – lock – brake – ing – system

  • lock -> antilock

  • brake -> braking



7.1.07 15:17


23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts- Morphology (2)

 

23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts - Morphology (2) held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel



Revision

antidisestablishmentarianism ( attempt to separate the state from the curch)

  • anti + disestablishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • dis + establishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • establishment + arianism (root + bound morpheme)

  • establish + ment ( free morpheme + bound morpheme)





Compounds: At least two roots

  • noun combine with

  • noun (fire engine)

  • adjective ( greenhouse)

  • verbs ( swimming suit)



head: noun

  • wall paper

  • table cloth

  • ring finger

  • patch work

  • police officer

  • watermelon

  • birthday

  • raindrop



head: verb

  • highlight

  • undercut

  • offset

  • upflow



head: adjective

  • headstrong

  • squeaky clean

  • snow white





Derivation

  • process of adding a morpheme to a base by which the meaning and/or wordclass of the base changes


Example derivations

Base

Affix

Result

Write verb

- er

Writer noun

Write verb

- ing

Writing noun

Write verb

re-

Rewrite verb

Treat verb

-ment

Treatment noun

Treat verb

Mis-

Mistreat verb

Treat verb

Mis- , -ment

Mistreatment noun





Consequences of derivation

  • Suffixes change the wordclass of the base, prefixes the meaning

  • Derived words are productive, i.e. they can be used for further word formation, either serving as a base in derivation, or they can be inflected.

  • The list of derivational affixes is fixed (it is a closed class).





Some English suffixes

Suffix

Wordclass (base)

Derived wordclass

- able

Verb

Adjective

-ant

Verb

Noun

-(a)tion

Verb

Noun

-er

Verb

Noun

-less

Noun

Adjective

-ly

Adjective

Adverb

-ness

Adjective

Noun

-ment

Verb

Noun

-ous

Noun

Adjective





Some English prefixes

  • anti

  • de

  • dis

  • ex

  • in

  • mis

  • re

  • un-



Zero Derivation

  • special phenomenon in English

  • words can change wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (=by adding an empty morpheme)


Base

Derived

Xerox

To xerox

Thread

To thread

House

To house





Task

  • select of the following parts of speech 3 each:

  • verbs : play, work, write

  • nouns: bird, wall, table

  • adjectives: small, red, long

     

  • derive as many words as possible from them!ab

  • Playground, player, played, playing, playable,...

  • worker, worked, working, workable,..

  • writer, writing, rewrite, writable,...

  • ladybird, birdish,...

  • wallpaper, chinese wall,...

  • table cloth, coffetable, tablewater,...

  • smaller,...

  • redish, redly,...

  • longous, longly, longer,...

1.12.06 19:40


16. 11. 2006 Morphology- Words and their parts

 

16. 11. 2006 Morphology (1) – Words and their parts held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel





Components of Words

Word formation

  • simplex words

  • derived words

  • compound words



Definition of the word „word“

Collection of proposals in the lecture

  • combination of letters that make sense or have a special meaning

  • consists of letters

  • carries meaning

  • can be spoken

  • simple unit of language

  • written sound

  • used to form sentences

  • ...



Baseline

  • We know what a word is (!)

  • words make up sentences ( sentences: syntax)

  • pronunciation with speech sound

  • speech sounds= phonemes= phonology

  • meaningful (sub)structure of words

  • structure of words= morphology



What is MORPHOLOGY?

  • The study of the formation of words

  • MORPHEMES: The smallest unit of a unit that carries meaning. A word can be comprised of one or more morphemes

  • try: attempt to do something

  • try + „in the past“ : tried

  • try + „at the moment“ : trying



Identify the meaningful units of the following words:

Identify -> ident – ify

the -> the

meaningful -> mean- ing – ful

units -> unit-s

of -> of

the -> the

following -> follow- ing

words -> word-s

maybe -> may-be

some -> some

more -> more

complicated -> complicat- ed

example -> example

using -> use- ing

witchcraft -> witch- craft

to -> to

find -> find

terms -> term-s




Basic concepts in morphology


Simple word

  • consists of only one morpheme.

  • Example: boy, man, radio, book, paper, magnet, house, compute


Complex word

  • contains more than one morpheme (i.e. ≥2 morphemes).

  • Example: computer, boys, radio-recorder, bookshelf, magnetize, acidfree


Task: Find words

Find at least 20 simple words

  • boy

  • mother

  • table

  • father

  • desk

  • lamp

  • pupil

  • shoe

  • house

  • mouse

  • cat

  • dog

  • tiger

  • water

  • food

  • book

  • play

  • paper

  • shoe

  • pen


Find at least 20 complex words

  • rainbow

  • boys

  • shoes

  • teddy bear

  • pencil- case

  • bookshelves

  • ice cream

  • sunshine

  • raindrop

  • orange juice

  • birthday

  • table cloth

  • necklace

  • computer

  • wallpaper

  • cups

  • pre- prepared

  • teacher

  • description

  • establishment

  • similarities



Which of them are similar?

  • Sunshine – raindrop ( 2 nouns/ simplex words each)

  • boys – shoes ( simplex word + plural „s“ )

  • description – similarities ( simplex word + affix)

     

  • Can you describe the similarity?

  • Many complex words are built in the same way

     

Can you find a relation between some of

your simple words and complex words?

  • Boy – boys ( simple word – simple word plus plural s)

     

     

Free morpheme

  • can occur as a simple word.

  • Example: boy, man, radio,...


Bound morpheme

  • can only occur in connection with other morphemes. Example: -s, -ion, un-, -ize, ...


Allomorph:

  • Variant forms of a morpheme

  • Example: a -- an, plural -s /s/ -- /Iz/ -- /z/



Task: free and bound morphemes

Make a list of 20 free morphemes

  • -> see list of simple words

     

Find bound morphemes

  • -s, -ion, -ize, -ment, -ism, -al, ...



Structure of words

several parts


root: carries the meaning

  • unbelievable: believe


affixes: other parts [bound morphemes]


prefix: affixes that attach before the root


suffix: affixes that attach after the root

  • example: In unbelievable “un” is a prefix and “able” a suffix.


base: form to which an affix is attached



Hierachy of concept

WORD

/   ............   \

root ..........    affix

....................../ .../ .....\.... \

...........................prefix .circumfix infix suffix





Task: complete the sentences!

Every word contains a ___base_______

A morpheme that is also a word is called a

____free morpheme_______________

A morpheme that needs a root to make up a word

is called a __bound morpheme______________

An affix in front of a base is called a _prefix_____,

behind a base it is called a _suffix_____

Both, simple words and complex words can be

the _base______ for a more complex word.

Every _root___ is a _base____, but not every _base___ is a

_root____.




Processes of forming words


compounding


derivation


Other processes involved

  • inflection



Compounds – at least two roots

nouns combine with

  • nouns (fire engine),

  • adjectives (greenhouse),

  • verbs (swimming suit) and

  • prepositions (afterthought)


verbs combine with

  • adjectives (dry clean),

  • verbs (breakdance)

  • prepositions (underestimate)


adjectives combine with

  • prepositions (ingrown)

  • adjectives ( red hot)



Constituents of compounds

head

  • second part of compound

  • word class


modifier: specifies the compound





Task

Find other compounds in English with a head that is a

  • noun ( rain drop)

  • verb (role – playing)

  • adjectives (cherry- red)

Find other compounds in English with a modifier that is a

  • noun (sunshine)

  • verb ( playground)

  • adjectives ( red skin)

  • prepositions ( over joy)


30.11.06 20:10


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